Kalachakra Ephemeris will no doubt be boon to the scientific world when
man from time immemorial has been inquisitive to explore the universe, and whether
there is life in outer space and it is very interesting to notes as to how the sage
Sri Sukamuni (Son of Vyasadeva) with divine vision clearly explains to Parikshit
Maharaja without the help of a telescope the position of movements of the Sun and
the Planets in the Universe. In the SrimadBhagavatham Fifth Canto, it is explained
as to how the Sun rotates through the time circle of the Universe, decriptions of
orbits of the Planets, the twelve different sign of the Zodiac, the Solar and Lunar
calculation, the supreme person who descends to this material world in the form
of the planets Sun, the distance and speed between the Sun, the Moon, Mars, Mercury,
Jupitier, Venus, Saturn, the
polestar (Dhruvaloka) and the seven sages (Sapata Rishimandala)
and 28 important
stars are fixed on different sides of the Sishumara planetary system.
There is a crystal clear explanation of
the Solar system in the Srimad-Bhagavatam which is the king of the Puranas and translated
by his divine grace A.C Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. The translation is in the
fifth Canto it is as follows :
Moving with the great wheel of the time,
the stars and constellations travel clockwise around the polestar, and the Sun travels
with them. The Sun however, encircles the polestar, in its own counter clockwise
orbit around Sumeru, and therefore the Sun’s motion is seems to be different from
that of the wheel of time itself. Passing through twelve months, the Sun comes in
touch with the twelve different sign of the Zodiac and assumes twelve different
names according to those signs. The aggregate of those twelve months is called a
Samvatsara or an entire year.
The Orbits Of The Planet Canto-5 (Chapter-22) SrimadBhagavatham :
The orbits of the planet are described according
to the movements of the Moon and other Planets. All the inhabitations of the Universe
are prone to auspicious and inauspicious situations. This is referred to as the
influence of the stars.
– God who controls the affairs of the entire Universe, especially in regard to Heat,
Light, Seasonal changes and so on, is considered an expansion of Narayana. He represents
the three Vedas – Rig, Yajur and Sama – and therefore he is known as Trayimayi,
the form of Lord Narayana. Sometimes the Son god is also called Surya Narayana.
The Sun has expanded him self in twelve divisions and thus Yogis and Karmis following
the Varnasrama institution, who practice Hatha
or Astanga Yoga or who perform
Aganihotra sacrifices, worship Surya Narayana for their own benefit. the Sun God
is always in touch with the supreme personality of godhead, Narayana. Residind in
outer space which is in the middle of the Universe, between Bhuloka and Bhuvarloka,
The Sun rotate through the time circle of the Zodiac, represented by twelve raises,
or signs and assumes different names according to the sign he is in. For the Moon,
every month is divided in to two fortnights. Similarly, according to the Solar calculation
a month is equal to the time the Sun spends in one constellation : two months constitute
one season and there twelve months in a year. The entire area of the sky is divided
in to two halves, each representing an ayana, the course traversed by the sun within
a period of six months the sun travels sometime slowly, sometimes swiftly and sometimes
at a moderate speed. In this way it travels within in the three worlds, consisting
of the heavenly planets, the earthly planets and outer space. These orbits are referred
to by great learned scholars as Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavastara, Anuvatsara
Canto-5, Chapter-22 :
TEXT 1 :
King Parikshit inquired from Sukadeva
Gosvami : My dear Lord, You have already affirmed the truth that the supremely powerful
Sun god travels around Dhruvaloka with both Dhruvaloka and Mount Sumeru on his right.
Yet at the same time the Sun gods faces the signs of the Zodiac and keep Sumeru
and Dhruvaloka on his left. How can we reasonably accept the Sun god proceeds with
Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on both his left right simultaneously?
TEXT 2 :
Sri Sukadeva Gosvami clearly answered
: When a potter’s wheel is moving with it, one can see that their motion is different
from that of the wheel because they appear some times on one part of the wheel and
sometimes on another. Similarly, the signs and constellations, with Sumeru and Dhruvaloka
on their right, move with the wheel of time, and the Antika Sun and other planets
move with them. The Sun and planets, however, are seen in different signs and constellations
at different times. This indicates that their motion is different from that of the
Zodiac and the wheel of time itself.
TEXT 3 :
The original cause of the cosmic manifestation
is the supreme personality of godhead, Narayana. When great saintly persons, fully
aware of the Vedic knowledge, offered prayers to the supreme person, he descended
to this material world in the form of the Sun to benefit all the planets and purify
fruitive activites. He divided himself in to twelve parts and created seasonal forms,
beginning with spring. In this way he created the seasonal qualities. Such as Heat,
Cold and so on.
TEXT 4 :
According to the system of four Varnas
and four Asramas, people generally worship the supreme personality as the super soul
according to ritualistic ceremonies handed down in the three Vedas, such as Agnihotra
and similar higher and lower fruitive acts, and according to the process of Mystic Yoga. In this way they very easily attain the ultimate goal of life.
TEXT 5 :
The Sun God, who is Narayana, or Vishnu,
the soul of all the worlds is situated in outer space between the upper and lower
portions of the Universe. Passing through twelve months on the wheel of time, the
Sun comes in touch with twelve different signs of the Zodiac and assumes 12 different
names according to those signs. The aggregate of those twelve months is called a
Samvatsara, or An Entire Year. According to Lunar
calculations, two fortnights – one of the waxing Moon and the other of the waning from one month. That same period
is one dayand night for the planet Pitrloka. According
to stellar calculation a month
equals two and one quarter constellations. When the
Sun travels for two months, a
season passes, and therefore the seasonal changes are considered part of the year.
TEXT 6 :
Thus the time the Sun takes to rotate
through half of outer space is called an Ayana or its period of
movement (In the North or in the South).
TEXT 7 :
The Son God has three speeds - Slow, Fast
and Moderate. The time he takes to travel around the spheres of Heaven, Earth and
Space at these three speeds is referred to, by learned scholars, Samvatsara,
Parivatsara, Idavatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.
According to Solar astronomical calculations
each year extends six days beyond the calendar year, and according to Lunar calculations,
each year is six days shorter. Therefore, because of the movements of the Sun and
Moon, there is a difference of twelve days between the Solar and Lunar years. As
the Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara pass by, two extra months are added within each five
years. This makes a sixth Samvatsara but because that Samvatsara is extra, the Solar
System is calculated according to the above five names.
TEXT 8 :
Above the rays of the Sunshine by a distance
of 100000 Yojanas (800000 Miles) is the Moon which travels at a speed faster than
that of the Sun. In two Lunar fortnights the Moon travels through the equivalent
of a Samvatsara of the Sun, and in one day it passes through a fortnight of the
TEXT 9 :
When the Moon is waxing the illuminating
portions of it increase daily, thus creating day for the pitas. When the Moon is
warning how ever it causes for the Demigods and day for the Pitas. In this way the
Moon passes through each constellation of stars in thirty Muhurtas (An entire day).
moon is the source of nectarean coolness that influences the growth of food grains,
and therefore the Moon – God is considered the life of all living entities. He is
consequently called Jiva, the chief living being within the universe.
TEXT 10 :
Because the Moon is full of all potentialities,
it represents the influence of the supreme personality of godhead. The Moon is the
predominating deity of every one’s mind, and therefore the Moon god is called
Manomaya. He also called Annamaya, because he gives potency to all herbs and plants, and he
is called Arrtamaya, because
he is the source of life for all living entilties. The Moon pleases the Demidgods,
Pitas, Humanbeings, Animals, Birds, Reptiles, Trees, Plants and all other living entities. Everyone is satisfied by the presence of the Moon. Therefore the Moon
is also called Sarvamaya (All-Pervading).
TEXT 11 :
There are many stars located 200000 Yojanas
(1600000 Miles) above the Moon. By the supreme will of the supreme personality of
godhead, they are fixed to the wheel of time, and thus they rotate with Mount Sumeru
on their right, their motion being different from that of the Sun. There are twenty
eight important stars, headed by Abhijit.
TEXT 12 :
Some 1600000 Miles above this group of
stars is the planet Venus, which moves at almost exactly the same pace as the Sun
according to swift, slow and moderate movement. Some times along with it. Venus
nullifies the influence of planets that are obstacles to rainfall. Consequently
its presence causes rainfall, and it is therefore considered very favorable for
all living beings within this Universe. This has been accepted by learned scholars.
TEXT 13 :
Mercury is described to be similar to
Venus, in that it moves sometimes behind the Sun. Sometimes in front of the Sun
and sometimes along with it. It is son of the Moon, is almost always very auspicious
for the inhabitants of the universe, but when it does not move along with the Sun,
it forbids cyclones, dust, irregular rainfall and water less clouds. In this way
it creates fearful conditions due to inadequate or excessive rainfall.
TEXT 14 :
Situated 1600000 Miles above Mercury,
or 8800000 Miles above the Earth is the planet Mars. if this planet does not travel
in a crooked way, it crosses through all twelve, one after another, it almost always
creates unfavorable conditions in respect to rainfall and other influences.
TEXT 15 :
Situated 1600000 Miles above Mars, of
10400000 Miles above the Earth, is the planet Jupiter, which travels through one
sign of the Zodiac within the period of a Parivatsara. If its movement is not curved,
the planet Jupiter is very favorable to the Brahmanas of the universe.
TEXT 16 :
Situated 1600000 Miles above Jupiter,
or 12000000 Miles above the Earth, is the planet Saturn, which passes through one
sign of the Zodiac circle in thirty Anuvatsaras. This planet is always very inauspicious
for the universal situation.
TEXT 17 :
Situated 8800000 Miles above Saturn, or
20800000 Miles above the Earth, are the seven saintly sages, who are always thinking
of the well being of the inhabitants of the universe. They circumbulate the supreme
abode of lord Vishnu, known as Dhruvaloka, the Polestar.
--- SrimadBhagavatam Canto-5 (Chapter-22)