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   This Kalachakra Ephemeris will no doubt be boon to the scientific world when man from time immemorial has been inquisitive to explore the universe, and whether there is life in outer space and it is very interesting to notes as to how the sage Sri Sukamuni (Son of Vyasadeva) with divine vision clearly explains to Parikshit Maharaja without the help of a telescope the position of movements of the Sun and the Planets in the Universe. In the SrimadBhagavatham Fifth Canto, it is explained as to how the Sun rotates through the time circle of the Universe, decriptions of orbits of the Planets, the twelve different sign of the Zodiac, the Solar and Lunar calculation, the supreme person who descends to this material world in the form of the planets Sun, the distance and speed between the Sun, the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupitier, Venus, Saturn, the polestar (Dhruvaloka) and the seven sages (Sapata Rishimandala) and 28 important stars are fixed on different sides of the Sishumara planetary system.


   There is a crystal clear explanation of the Solar system in the Srimad-Bhagavatam which is the king of the Puranas and translated by his divine grace A.C Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. The translation is in the fifth Canto it is as follows : 


   Moving with the great wheel of the time, the stars and constellations travel clockwise around the polestar, and the Sun travels with them. The Sun however, encircles the polestar, in its own counter clockwise orbit around Sumeru, and therefore the Sun’s motion is seems to be different from that of the wheel of time itself. Passing through twelve months, the Sun comes in touch with the twelve different sign of the Zodiac and assumes twelve different names according to those signs. The aggregate of those twelve months is called a Samvatsara or an entire year.


The Orbits Of The Planet Canto-5 (Chapter-22) SrimadBhagavatham : 

  The orbits of the planet are described according to the movements of the Moon and other Planets. All the inhabitations of the Universe are prone to auspicious and inauspicious situations. This is referred to as the influence of the stars.

  The Sun – God who controls the affairs of the entire Universe, especially in regard to Heat, Light, Seasonal changes and so on, is considered an expansion of Narayana. He represents the three Vedas – Rig, Yajur and Sama – and therefore he is known as Trayimayi, the form of Lord Narayana. Sometimes the Son god is also called Surya Narayana. The Sun has expanded him self in twelve divisions and thus Yogis and Karmis following the Varnasrama institution, who practice Hatha   or Astanga Yoga or who perform Aganihotra sacrifices, worship Surya Narayana for their own benefit. the Sun God is always in touch with the supreme personality of godhead, Narayana. Residind in outer space which is in the middle of the Universe, between Bhuloka and Bhuvarloka, The Sun rotate through the time circle of the Zodiac, represented by twelve raises, or signs and assumes different names according to the sign he is in. For the Moon, every month is divided in to two fortnights. Similarly, according to the Solar calculation a month is equal to the time the Sun spends in one constellation : two months constitute one season and there twelve months in a year. The entire area of the sky is divided in to two halves, each representing an ayana, the course traversed by the sun within a period of six months the sun travels sometime slowly, sometimes swiftly and sometimes at a moderate speed. In this way it travels within in the three worlds, consisting of the heavenly planets, the earthly planets and outer space. These orbits are referred to by great learned scholars as Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavastara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.

SrimadBhagavatam Canto-5, Chapter-22 : 


TEXT 1 :

   King Parikshit inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami : My dear Lord, You have already affirmed the truth that the supremely powerful Sun god travels around Dhruvaloka with both Dhruvaloka and Mount Sumeru on his right. Yet at the same time the Sun gods faces the signs of the Zodiac and keep Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on his left. How can we reasonably accept the Sun god proceeds with Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on both his left right simultaneously?


TEXT 2 :

   Sri Sukadeva Gosvami clearly answered : When a potter’s wheel is moving with it, one can see that their motion is different from that of the wheel because they appear some times on one part of the wheel and sometimes on another. Similarly, the signs and constellations, with Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on their right, move with the wheel of time, and the Antika Sun and other planets move with them. The Sun and planets, however, are seen in different signs and constellations at different times. This indicates that their motion is different from that of the Zodiac and the wheel of time itself.


TEXT 3 :

   The original cause of the cosmic manifestation is the supreme personality of godhead, Narayana. When great saintly persons, fully aware of the Vedic knowledge, offered prayers to the supreme person, he descended to this material world in the form of the Sun to benefit all the planets and purify fruitive activites. He divided himself in to twelve parts and created seasonal forms, beginning with spring. In this way he created the seasonal qualities. Such as Heat, Cold and so on.


TEXT 4 :

   According to the system of four Varnas and four Asramas, people generally worship the supreme personality as the super soul according to ritualistic ceremonies handed down in the three Vedas, such as Agnihotra and similar higher and lower fruitive acts, and according to the process of Mystic Yoga. In this way they very easily attain the ultimate goal of life.


TEXT 5 :

   The Sun God, who is Narayana, or Vishnu, the soul of all the worlds is situated in outer space between the upper and lower portions of the Universe. Passing through twelve months on the wheel of time, the Sun comes in touch with twelve different signs of the Zodiac and assumes 12 different names according to those signs. The aggregate of those twelve months is called a Samvatsara, or An Entire Year. According to Lunar calculations, two fortnights – one of the waxing Moon and the other of the waning from one month. That same period is one dayand night for the planet Pitrloka. According to stellar calculation a month equals two and one quarter constellations. When the Sun travels for two months, a season passes, and therefore the seasonal changes are considered part of the year.


TEXT 6 :

   Thus the time the Sun takes to rotate through half of outer space is called an Ayana or its period of movement (In the North or in the South).


TEXT 7 :

   The Son God has three speeds - Slow, Fast and Moderate. The time he takes to travel around the spheres of Heaven, Earth and Space at these three speeds is referred to, by learned scholars, Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.


Purport : 

   According to Solar astronomical calculations each year extends six days beyond the calendar year, and according to Lunar calculations, each year is six days shorter. Therefore, because of the movements of the Sun and Moon, there is a difference of twelve days between the Solar and Lunar years. As the Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara pass by, two  extra months are added within each five years. This makes a sixth Samvatsara but because that Samvatsara is extra, the Solar System is calculated according to the above five names.


TEXT 8 :

   Above the rays of the Sunshine by a distance of 100000 Yojanas (800000 Miles) is the Moon which travels at a speed faster than that of the Sun. In two Lunar fortnights the Moon travels through the equivalent of a Samvatsara of the Sun, and in one day it passes through a fortnight of the Sun.


TEXT 9 :

    When the Moon is waxing the illuminating portions of it increase daily, thus creating day for the pitas. When the Moon is warning how ever it causes for the Demigods and day for the Pitas. In this way the Moon passes through each constellation of stars in thirty Muhurtas (An entire day). The moon is the source of nectarean coolness that influences the growth of food grains, and therefore the Moon – God is considered the life of all living entities. He is consequently called Jiva, the chief living being within the universe.


TEXT 10 :

   Because the Moon is full of all potentialities, it represents the influence of the supreme personality of godhead. The Moon is the predominating deity of every one’s mind, and therefore the Moon god is called Manomaya. He also called Annamaya, because he gives potency to all herbs and plants, and he is called Arrtamaya, because he is the source of life for all living entilties. The Moon pleases the Demidgods, Pitas, Humanbeings, Animals, Birds, Reptiles, Trees, Plants and all other living entities. Everyone is satisfied by the presence of the Moon. Therefore the Moon is also called Sarvamaya (All-Pervading).

TEXT 11 :

   There are many stars located 200000 Yojanas (1600000 Miles) above the Moon. By the supreme will of the supreme personality of godhead, they are fixed to the wheel of time, and thus they rotate with Mount Sumeru on their right, their motion being different from that of the Sun. There are twenty eight important stars, headed by Abhijit. 

TEXT 12 :

   Some 1600000 Miles above this group of stars is the planet Venus, which moves at almost exactly the same pace as the Sun according to swift, slow and moderate movement. Some times along with it. Venus nullifies the influence of planets that are obstacles to rainfall. Consequently its presence causes rainfall, and it is therefore considered very favorable for all living beings within this Universe. This has been accepted by learned scholars.


TEXT 13 :

   Mercury is described to be similar to Venus, in that it moves sometimes behind the Sun. Sometimes in front of the Sun and sometimes along with it. It is son of the Moon, is almost always very auspicious for the inhabitants of the universe, but when it does not move along with the Sun, it forbids cyclones, dust, irregular rainfall and water less clouds. In this way it creates fearful conditions due to inadequate or excessive rainfall.


TEXT 14 :

   Situated 1600000 Miles above Mercury, or 8800000 Miles above the Earth is the planet Mars. if this planet does not travel in a crooked way, it crosses through all twelve, one after another, it almost always creates unfavorable conditions in respect to rainfall and other influences.


TEXT 15 :

   Situated 1600000 Miles above Mars, of 10400000 Miles above the Earth, is the planet Jupiter, which travels through one sign of the Zodiac within the period of a Parivatsara. If its movement is not curved, the planet Jupiter is very favorable to the Brahmanas of the universe.


TEXT 16 : 

   Situated 1600000 Miles above Jupiter, or 12000000 Miles above the Earth, is the planet Saturn, which passes through one sign of the Zodiac circle in thirty Anuvatsaras. This planet is always very inauspicious for the universal situation. 


TEXT 17 :

   Situated 8800000 Miles above Saturn, or 20800000 Miles above the Earth, are the seven saintly sages, who are always thinking of the well being of the inhabitants of the universe. They circumbulate the supreme abode of lord Vishnu, known as Dhruvaloka, the Polestar.


                                               --- SrimadBhagavatam Canto-5 (Chapter-22)

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